History of Ireland
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|History of Ireland|
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The first known settlements in Celtic religion, a process that was completed by the year 600.
From around AD 800, more than a century of Viking invasions wrought havoc upon the monastic culture and on the island’s various regional dynasties, yet both of these institutions proved strong enough to survive and assimilate the invaders. The coming of Cambro-Norman mercenaries under Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed Strongbow, in 1169 marked the beginning of more than 700 years of direct English, and, later, British involvement in Ireland. In 1177, Prince John Lackland was made Lord of Ireland by his father Henry II of England at the Council of Oxford. The Crown did not attempt to assert full control of the island until after Henry VIII‘s repudiation of papal authority over the Church in England and subsequent English Reformation, which failed in Ireland. Questions over the loyalty of Irish vassals provided the initial impetus for a series of Irish military campaigns between 1534 and 1691. This period was marked by a Crown policy of plantation, involving the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant settlers, and the consequent displacement of the pre-plantation Catholic landholders. As the military and political defeat of Gaelic Ireland became more pronounced in the early seventeenth century, sectarian conflict became a recurrent theme in Irish history.
The 1613 overthrow of the Catholic majority in the Irish Parliament was realised principally through the creation of numerous new boroughs which were dominated by the new settlers. By the end of the seventeenth century, recusant Roman Catholics, as adherents to the old religion were now termed, representing some 85% of Ireland’s population, were then banned from the Irish Parliament. Political power rested entirely in the hands of an Anglican minority, while Catholics and members of dissenting Protestant denominations suffered severe political and economic privations at the hands of the Penal Laws. The Irish Parliament was abolished in 1801 in the wake of the republican United Irishmen Rebellion and Ireland became an integral part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union. Although promised a repeal of the Test Act, Catholics were not granted full rights until Catholic Emancipation was attained throughout the new UK in 1829. This was followed by the first Reform Bill in 1832, a principal condition of which was the removal of the poorer British and Irish freeholders from the franchise.
The physical force republicanism back to the forefront of Irish politics.
In 1922, after the uneasy peace thirty years later.
 Prehistory (8000 BC–400 AD)
What little is known of pre-cists, under earthen mounds and were accompanied by distinctive decorated pottery. This culture apparently prospered, and the island became more densely populated. Near the end of the Neolithic new types of monuments developed, such as circular embanked enclosures and timber, stone and post and pit circles.
The Middle Bronze Age, cremains were often placed beneath large burial urns.
The Iron Age in Ireland began about 600 BC. The period between the start of the Iron Age and the historic period (AD 431) saw the gradual infiltration of small groups of Celtic-speaking people into Ireland,Druids.
Linguists realised from the 17th century onwards that the language spoken by these people, the 
The Romans referred to Ireland as Hibernia. Ptolemy in AD 100 records Ireland’s geography and tribes. Ireland was never formally a part of the Roman Empire, but Roman influence was often projected well beyond formal borders. Tacitus writes that an exiled Irish prince was with Agricola in Britain and would return to seize power in Ireland. Juvenal tells us that Roman “arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland”. In recent years, some experts have hypothesized that Roman-sponsored Gaelic forces (or perhaps even Roman regulars) mounted some kind of invasion around 100, but the exact relationship between Rome and the dynasties and peoples of Hibernia remains unclear.
Irish confederations (the Dál Riata settled in western Scotland and the Western Isles.
 Early Christian Ireland (400–800)
The middle centuries of the first millennium AD marked great changes in Ireland. Niall Noigiallach (died c.450/455) laid the basis for the Uí Néill dynasty’s hegemony over much of western, northern and central Ireland. Politically, the former emphasis on tribal affiliation had been replaced by the 700s by that of patrilineal and dynastic background. Many formerly powerful kingdoms and peoples disappeared. Irish pirates struck all over the coast of western Britain in the same way that the Vikings would later attack Ireland. Some of these founded entirely new kingdoms in Pictland and, to a lesser degree, in parts of Wales. The Attacotti of south Leinster may even have served in the Roman military in the mid-to-late 300s.
Perhaps it was some of the latter returning home as rich mercenaries, merchants, or slaves stolen from Britain or Gaul, that first brought the Christian faith to Ireland. Some early sources claim that there were missionaries active in southern Ireland long before St. Patrick. Whatever the route, and there were probably many, this new faith was to have the most profound effect on the Irish.
Tradition maintains that in AD 432, Palladius was sent to Ireland by the Pope in 431 as “first Bishop to the Irish believing in Christ”, which demonstrates that there were already Christians living in Ireland. Palladius seems to have worked purely as Bishop to Irish Christians in the Leinster and Meath kingdoms, while Patrick — who may have arrived as late as 461 — worked first and foremost as a missionary to the pagan Irish, in the more remote kingdoms in Ulster and Connacht.
Patrick is traditionally credited with preserving the tribal and social patterns of the Irish, codifying their laws and changing only those that conflicted with Christian practices. He is credited with introducing the Roman alphabet, which enabled Irish monks to preserve parts of the extensive Celtic oral literature. The historicity of these claims remains the subject of debate and there is no direct evidence linking Patrick with any of these accomplishments. The myth of Patrick, as scholars refer to it, was developed in the centuries after his death.
The Druid tradition collapsed, first in the face of the spread of the new faith, and ultimately in the aftermath of famine and plagues due to the promontory forts.
The first Normans invaded in 1169.
 Early medieval and Viking era (800–1166)
The first recorded Norway looted the island. Early Viking raids were generally fast-paced and small in scale. These early raids interrupted the golden age of Christian Irish culture and marked the beginning of two centuries of intermittent warfare, with waves of Viking raiders plundering monasteries and towns throughout Ireland. Most of those early raiders came from western Norway.
The Vikings were expert sailors, who travelled in Dublin. Written accounts from this time (early to mid 840s) show that the Vikings were moving further inland to attack (often using rivers) and then retreating to their coastal headquarters.
In 852 the Vikings landed in Gall-Gaels, ‘(Gall being the Old Irish word for foreign).
However, the Vikings never achieved total domination of Ireland, often fighting for and against various Irish kings. The Battle of Clontarf in 1014 began the decline of Viking power in Ireland. However the towns which Vikings had founded continued to flourish, and trade became an important part of the Irish economy.
 Norman Ireland (1168–1536)
 Arrival of the Normans
By the 12th century, Ireland was divided politically into a shifting hierarchy of Richard de Clare, known as Strongbow, heir to his kingdom. This troubled King Henry, who feared the establishment of a rival Norman state in Ireland. Accordingly, he resolved to establish his authority.
With the authority of the papal bull Laudabiliter from Adrian IV, Henry landed with a large fleet at Waterford in 1171, becoming the first King of England to set foot on Irish soil. Henry awarded his Irish territories to his younger son John with the title Dominus Hiberniae (“Lord of Ireland”). When John unexpectedly succeeded his brother as King John of England, the “Lordship of Ireland” fell directly under the English Crown.
 Lordship of Ireland
The Normans initially controlled the entire east coast, from Ulster, and penetrated a considerable distance inland as well. The counties were ruled by many smaller kings. The first Lord of Ireland was King John, who visited Ireland in 1185 and 1210 and helped consolidate the Norman-controlled areas, while ensuring that the many Irish kings swore fealty to him.
Throughout the thirteenth century the policy of the English Kings was to weaken the power of the Norman Lords in Ireland. For example, King John encouraged Hiberno-Norman community suffered from a series of invasions that ceased the spread of their settlement and power. Politics and events in Gaelic Ireland served to draw the settlers deeper into the orbit of the Irish.
 Gaelic resurgence and Norman decline
By 1261 the weakening of the Battle of Callann. The war continued between the different lords and earls for about 100 years, causing much destruction, especially around Dublin. In this chaotic situation, local Irish lords won back large amounts of land that their families had lost since the conquest and held them after the war was over.
The the Pale), and had little real authority outside (beyond the Pale).
By the end of the 15th century, central English authority in Ireland had almost disappeared. England’s attentions were diverted by the Wars of the Roses. The Lordship of Ireland lay in the hands of the powerful Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare, who dominated the country by means of military force and alliances with Irish lords and clans. Around the country, local Gaelic and Gaelicised lords expanded their powers at the expense of the English government in Dublin but the power of the Dublin government was seriously curtailed by the introduction of Poynings’ Law in 1494. According to this act the Irish Parliament was essentially put under the control of the Westminster Parliament.
 Early modern Ireland (1536–1691)
 Conquest and rebellion
From 1536, Henry VIII decided to conquer Ireland and bring it under crown control. The Fitzgerald dynasty of Kildare, who had become the effective rulers of Ireland in the 15th century, had become unreliable allies of the Tudor monarchs. They had invited Burgundian troops into Dublin to crown the Yorkist pretender, Lambert Simnel as King of England in 1487. Again in 1536, Silken Thomas Fitzgerald went into open rebellion against the crown. Having put down this rebellion, Henry resolved to bring Ireland under English government control so the island would not become a base for future rebellions or foreign invasions of England. In 1541 he upgraded Ireland from a lordship to a full Kingdom. Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland at a meeting of the Irish Parliament that year. This was the first meeting of the Irish Parliament to be attended by the Gaelic Irish chieftains as well as the Hiberno-Norman aristocracy. With the institutions of government in place, the next step was to extend the control of the English Kingdom of Ireland over all of its claimed territory. This took nearly a century, with various English administrations either negotiating or fighting with the independent Irish and Old English lords. The Spanish Armada in Ireland suffered heavy losses during an extraordinary season of storms in the autumn of 1588. Among the survivors was Captain Francisco de Cuellar, who gave a remarkable account of his experiences on the run in Ireland.
The re-conquest was completed during the reigns of martial law) to bring the country under English control heightened resentment of English rule.
From the mid-16th to the early 17th century, crown governments carried out a policy of land confiscation and Church of Ireland.
 Wars and penal laws
The 17th century was perhaps the bloodiest in Ireland’s history. Two periods of war (1641–53 and 1689–91) caused huge loss of life. The ultimate dispossession of most of the Irish Catholic landowning class was engineered, and recusants were subordinated under the Penal Laws.
During the 17th century Ireland was convulsed by Connacht.
Ireland became the main battleground after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, when the Catholic James II left London and the English Parliament replaced him with William of Orange. The wealthier Irish Catholics backed James to try to reverse the Penal Laws and land confiscations, whereas Protestants supported William and Mary in this ‘Glorious Revolution’ to preserve their property in the country. James and William fought for the Kingdom of Ireland in the Williamite War, most famously at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, where James’ outnumbered forces were defeated.
From the 15th to the 18th century, Irish prisoners were sold as slaves. For centuries, the Irish were dehumanised by the English, described as savages, so making their murder and displacement appear all the more justified.
 Protestant ascendancy (1691–1801)
Jacobite resistance in Ireland was finally ended after the Battle of Aughrim in July 1691. The Penal Laws that had been relaxed somewhat after the Restoration were reinforced more thoroughly after this war, as the infant Anglo-Irish Ascendency novo élite wanted to ensure that the Irish Roman Catholics would not be in a position to repeat their rebellions.
Subsequent Irish antagonism toward England was aggravated by the economic situation of Ireland in the 18th century. Some Navigation Acts from the 1660s, which placed tariffs on Irish products entering England, but exempted English goods from tariffs on entering Ireland. Despite this most of the 18th century was relatively peaceful in comparison with the preceding two centuries, and the population doubled to over four million.
By the late 18th century, many of the French Revolution of 1789.
Presbyterians and Dissenters too faced persecution on a lesser scale, and in 1791 a group of dissident Protestant individuals, where all but two were Presbyterians, held the first meeting of what would become the Act of Union in 1801 (which abolished the Irish Parliament of that era).
 Union with Great Britain (1801–1912)
In 1800, following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the British and the Irish parliaments enacted the Acts of Union. The merger created a new political entity called United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801. Part of the agreement forming the basis of union was that the Test Act would be repealed to remove any remaining discrimination against Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Baptists and other dissenter religions in the newly United Kingdom. However, King George III, invoking the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 controversially and adamantly blocked attempts by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger. Pitt resigned in protest, but his successor Henry Addington and his new cabinet failed to legislate any repeal or change to the Test Act.
In 1823 an enterprising Catholic lawyer, Daniel O’Connell, known in Ireland as ‘The Liberator’ began an ultimately successful Irish campaign to achieve emancipation, and to be seated in the Parliament. This culminated in O’Connell’s successful election in the Clare by-election, which revived the parliamentary efforts at reform. The Catholic Relief Act 1829 was eventually approved by the U.K. parliament under the leadership of the Dublin-born Prime Minister, the Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. This indefatigable Anglo-Irish statesman, a former Chief Secretary for Ireland, and hero of the Napoleonic Wars, successfully guided the legislation through both houses of Parliament. By threatening to resign, he persuaded King George IV to sign the bill into law in 1829. The continuing obligation of Roman Catholics to fund the established Church of Ireland, however, led to the sporadic skirmishes of the Tithe War of 1831–38. The Church was disestablished by the Gladstone government in 1867. The continuing enactment of parliamentary reform during the ensuing administrations further extended the initially limited franchise. Daniel O’Connell M.P. later led the Repeal Association in an unsuccessful campaign to undo the Act of Union 1800.
The second of Ireland’s “Great Famines”, An Gorta Mór struck the country during 1845–49, with potato blight, exacerbated by the political and laissez-faire economic factors of the time leading to mass starvation and emigration. (See Great Irish Famine.) The impact of emigration in Ireland was severe; the population dropped from over 8 million before the Famine to 4.4 million in 1911. Gaelic or Irish, once the island’s spoken language, declined in use sharply in the nineteenth century as a result of the Famine and the creation of the National School education system, as well as hostility to the language from leading Irish politicians of the time; it was largely replaced by English.
Outside mainstream nationalism, a series of violent rebellions by Irish republicans took place in 1803, under Irish Republican Brotherhood. All failed, but physical force nationalism remained an undercurrent in the nineteenth century.
The late 19th century also witnessed major land reform, spearheaded by the Land League under Michael Davitt demanding what became known as the 3 Fs; Fair rent, free sale, fixity of tenure. From 1870 and as a result of the Land War agitations and subsequent Plan of Campaign of the 1880s, various U.K. governments introduced a series of Irish Land Acts. William O’Brien played a leading role in the 1902 Land Conference to pave the way for the most advanced social legislation in Ireland since the Union, the Wyndham Land Purchase Act of 1903. This Act set the conditions for the breakup of large estates and gradually devolved to rural landholders, and tenants’ ownership of the lands. It effectively ended the era of the absentee landlord, finally resolving the Irish Land Question.
In the 1870s the issue of Irish self-government again became a major focus of debate under Katherine O’Shea, the long-separated wife of a fellow Irish MP; he had fathered three children with the woman.
After the introduction of the Ancient Order of Hibernians.
 Home Rule, Easter Rising and War of Independence (1912–1922)
Home Rule became certain when in 1910 the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) under Irish Volunteers were established to oppose them and enforce the introduction of self-government.
In September 1914, just as the First World War broke out, the UK Parliament passed the Third Home Rule Act to establish self-government for Ireland, but was suspended for the duration of the war. In order to ensure implementation of Home Rule after the war, nationalist leaders and the IPP under Redmond supported with Ireland’s participation the British and Allied war effort under the Triple Entente against the expansion of Central Powers. The core of the Irish Volunteers were against this decision, but the majority left to form the National Volunteers who enlisted in Irish regiments of the New British Army, the 10th and 16th (Irish) Divisions, their Northern counterparts in the 36th (Ulster) Division. Before the war ended, Britain made two concerted efforts to implement Home Rule, one in May 1916 and again with the Irish Convention during 1917–1918, but the Irish sides (Nationalist, Unionist) were unable to agree to terms for the temporary or permanent exclusion of Ulster from its provisions.
The period 1916–1921 was marked by political violence and upheaval, ending in the unilaterally declaring sovereignty over the entire island.
Unwilling to negotiate any understanding with Britain short of complete independence, the Irish Republican Army, the army of the newly-declared Irish Republic, waged a guerilla war (the Irish War of Independence) from 1919 to 1921. In the course of the fighting and amid much acrimony, the Fourth Government of Ireland Act 1920 implemented Home Rule while separating the island into what the British government‘s Act termed “Northern Ireland” and “Southern Ireland“. In July 1921 the Irish and British governments agreed to a truce that halted the war. In December 1921 representatives of both governments signed an Anglo-Irish Treaty. The Irish delegation was led by Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins. This abolished the Irish Republic and created the Irish Free State, a self-governing Dominion of the Commonwealth of Nations in the manner of Canada and Australia. Under the Treaty, Northern Ireland could opt out of the Free State and stay within the United Kingdom: it promptly did so. In 1922 both parliaments ratified the Treaty, formalising independence for the 26-county Irish Free State (which renamed itself Ireland in 1937, and declared itself a republic in 1949); while the 6-county Northern Ireland, gaining Home Rule for itself, remained part of the United Kingdom. For most of the next 75 years, each territory was strongly aligned to either Catholic or Protestant ideologies, although this was more marked in the six counties of Northern Ireland.
 Free State and Republic (1922–present)
Main articles: Names of the Irish state
The treaty to sever the Union divided the republican movement into anti-Treaty (who wanted to fight on until an Irish Republic was achieved) and pro-Treaty supporters (who accepted the Free State as a first step towards full independence and unity). Between 1922 and 1923 both sides fought the bloody Fine Gael.
The new Irish Free State (1922-37) existed against the backdrop of the growth of dictatorships in mainland Europe and a major Economic War with Britain. However, unemployment and emigration were high. The population declined to a low of 2.7 million recorded in the 1961 census.
The censoring and banning of many books and films. In addition the Church largely controlled the State’s hospitals, schools and remained the largest provider of many other social services.
With the partition of Ireland in 1922, 92.6% of the Free State’s population were Catholic while 7.4% were Protestant. By the 1960s the Protestant population had fallen by half. Although emigration was high among all the population, due to a lack of economic opportunity, the rate of Protestant emigration was disproportionate in this period. Many Protestants left the country in the early 1920s, either because they felt unwelcome in a predominantly Catholic and nationalist state, because they were afraid due to the burning of Protestant homes (particularly of the old landed class) by republicans during the civil war, because they regarded themselves as British and did not wish to live in an independent Irish state, or because of the economic disruption caused by the recent violence. The Catholic Church had also issued a decree, known as Ne Temere, whereby the children of marriages between Catholics and Protestants had to be brought up as Catholics. From 1945, the emigration rate of Protestants fell and they became less likely to emigrate than Catholics – indicating their integration into the life of the Irish State.
In 1937 a new The Emergency.
In 1949 the state was formally declared a republic and it left the British Commonwealth.
In the 1960s, Ireland underwent a major economic change under reforming United Kingdom market, it did not do so until the UK did, in 1973.
Global economic problems in the 1970s, augmented by a set of misjudged economic policies followed by governments, including that of Taoiseach European Union in the early 2000s. Property values had risen by a factor of between four and ten between 1993 and 2006, in part fuelling the boom.
Irish society adopted relatively liberal social policies during this period. Mass dropping by half in twenty years. A series of tribunals set up from the 1990s have investigated alleged malpractices by politicians, the Catholic clergy, judges, hospitals and the Gardaí (police).
 Northern Ireland (1921-present)
 “A Protestant state” (1921–1972)
The 1920 Government of Ireland Bill enabled the reformation of the Northern Ireland counties which consisted of six Northeastern counties of Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Antrim, Down and Armagh.Northern Ireland riots of August 1969. To restore order, British troops were deployed to the streets of Northern Ireland at that time.
The violent outbreaks in the late 1960s encouraged and helped strengthen military groups such as the IRA, who posited themselves as the protectors of the working class Catholics who were vulnerable to police and civilian brutality. During the late sixties and early seventies recruitment into the IRA organization dramatically increased as street and civilian violence worsened. The interjection from the British troops proved to be insufficient to quell the violence and thus solidified the IRA’s growing military importance.England and across the Irish border.
|Irish Police forces|
|—Defunct Irish Police Forces—|
|Royal Irish Constabulary
|Dublin Metropolitan Police
|Irish Republican Police
(Irish Republic 1920—1922)
|Royal Ulster Constabulary
|—Current Irish Police Forces—|
|Belfast Harbour Police
|Larne Harbour Police
|Royal Military Police
|Belfast International Airport Constabulary
|Police Service of Northern Ireland
|Ministry of Defence Police
|Republic of Ireland|
|Garda Síochána Reserve
 Direct rule (1972–1999)
For the next 27½ years, with the exception of five months in 1974, Northern Ireland was under “direct rule” with a Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in the British Cabinet responsible for the departments of the Northern Ireland government. Direct Rule was designed to be a temporary solution until Northern Ireland was capable of governing itself again. Principal acts were passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in the same way as for much of the rest of the UK, but many smaller measures were dealt with by Order in Council with minimal parliamentary scrutiny. Attempts were made to establish a power-sharing executive, representing both the nationalist and unionist communities, by the Northern Ireland Constitution Act of 1973 and the Sunningdale Agreement in December 1973. Both acts however did little to create cohesion between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The Constitution Act of 1973 formalized the UK government’s affirmation of reunification of Ireland by consent only; therefore ultimately delegating the authoritative power of the border question from Stormont to the people of Northern Ireland (and the Republic of Ireland). Conversely, the Sunningdale Agreement included a “provision of a Council of Ireland which held the right to execute executive and harmonizing functions”. Most significantly, the Sunningdale Agreement brought together political leaders from Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the UK to deliberate for the first time since 1925. The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention and Jim Prior’s 1982 assembly were also temporarily implemented; however all failed to either reach consensus or operate in the longer term.
During the 1970s British policy concentrated on defeating the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) by military means including the policy of Ulsterisation (requiring the RUC and British Army reserve Ulster Defence Regiment to be at the forefront of combating the IRA). Although IRA violence decreased it was obvious that no military victory was on hand in either the short or medium terms. Even Catholics who generally rejected the IRA were unwilling to offer support to a state that seemed to remain mired in sectarian discrimination, and the Unionists were not interested in Catholic participation in running the state in any case. In the 1980s the IRA attempted to secure a decisive military victory based on massive arms shipments from Libya. When this failed, senior republican figures began to look to broaden the struggle from purely military means. In time this began a move towards military cessation. In 1986 the British and Irish governments signed the Anglo Irish Agreement signalling a formal partnership in seeking a political solution. The Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA) recognized the Irish government’s right to be consulted and heard as well as guaranteed equality of treatment and recognition of the Irish and British identities of the two communities. The agreement also stated that the two governments must implement a cross-border cooperation. Socially and economically Northern Ireland suffered the worst levels of unemployment in the UK and although high levels of public spending ensured a slow modernisation of public services and moves towards equality, progress was slow in the 1970s and 1980s. Only in the 1990s, when progress toward peace became tangible, did the economic situation brighten. By then the demographics of Northern Ireland had undergone significant change, and more than 40% of the population was Catholic.
 Devolution and direct rule (1999–present)
More recently, the Sinn Féin parties. On 28 July 2005, the Provisional IRA announced the end of its armed campaign and on 25 September 2005 international weapons inspectors supervised the full disarmament of the PIRA. Eventually, devolution was restored in April 2007.
 Modern Ireland
Ireland’s economy has evolved greatly, becoming more diverse and sophisticated than ever before by integrating itself into the global economy. By the beginning of the 1990s Ireland had transformed itself into a modern industrial economy and generated substantial national income that benefited the entire nation. Although dependence on agriculture still remained high, Ireland’s industrial economy produced sophisticated goods that rivalled international competition. Ireland’s international economic boom of the 1990s led to its being called the “Celtic Tiger.”
The Catholic Church, which once exercised great power, found its influence on socio-political issues in Ireland much reduced. Irish bishops were no longer able to advise and influence the public on how to exercise their political rights. Modern Ireland’s detachment of the Church from ordinary life can be explained by the increasing disinterest in Church doctrine by younger generations and the questionable morality of the Church’s representatives. A highly publicised case was that of Eamonn Casey, the Bishop of Galway, who resigned abruptly in 1992 after it was revealed that he had had an affair with an American woman and had fathered a child. Further controversies and scandals arose concerning paedophile and child-abusing priests. As a result, many in the Irish public began to question the credibility and effectiveness of the Catholic Church.
 Flags in Ireland
The national flag of Ireland is a tricolour of green, white and orange. This flag, which bears the colours green for Roman Catholics, orange for Protestants, and white for the desired peace between them, dates to mid-19th century.
The tricolour was first unfurled in public by John Mitchel said of it: “I hope to see that flag one day waving as our national banner.”
In 1937 when the Constitution of Ireland was introduced, the tricolour was formally confirmed as the national flag: “The national flag is the tricolour of green, white and orange.” While the tricolour today is the official flag of Ireland, it is not an official flag in Northern Ireland although it is sometimes used unofficially.
The only official flag representing Northern Ireland is the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Ulster Banner is sometimes used unofficially as a de facto regional flag for Northern Ireland.
Since Partition, there has been no universally-accepted flag to represent the entire island. As a provisional solution for certain sports fixtures, the Flag of the Four Provinces enjoys a certain amount of general acceptance and popularity.
Historically a number of flags have been used, including:
- Union Flag after the Act of Union;
- a green flag with a harp (used by most nationalists in the 19th century and which is also the flag of Leinster);
- a blue flag with a harp used from the 18th century onwards by many nationalists (now the standard of the President of Ireland);
- the Irish tricolour.
St Patrick’s Saltire was formerly used to represent the island of Ireland by the all-island Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) uses the tricolour to represent the whole island.
 See also
- History of Belfast
- History of Cork
- History of Derry
- History of Dublin
- History of England
- History of Europe
- History of European Union
- History of Galway
- History of Limerick
- History of Northern Ireland
- History of Kilkenny
- History of the Republic of Ireland
- History of Scotland
- History of the United Kingdom
- History of Wales
- History of Waterford
- History of rail transport in Ireland
- History of Roman Catholicism in Ireland
- Irish Historians
- Irish genealogy
- Miscellanea Historica Hibernica (book)
- Timeline of Irish history
- History news network 2004-09-09. Retrieved 2007-04-01
- Myths of British ancestry Stephen Oppenheimer. October 2006, Special report. Retrieved 2007-04-01
- Connolly, S.J., The Oxford Companion to Irish History, 2007, Oxford Univ. Press. p.423. ISBN 978-0-19-923483-7
- David Ross, Ireland History of a Nation, ISBN 1-84205-164-4
- Wallace, Patrick F., O’Floinn, Raghnall eds. Treasures of the National Museum of Ireland: Irish Antiquities, pp. 126-127
- S.J. Connolly, Oxford Companion to Irish History, 2002, ISBN 978-0-19-923483-7
- Sean Duffy, A Concise History of Ireland, 2005, ISBN 0-7171-3810-0
- “Myths of British Ancestry”. Prospect Magazine. http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/article_details.php?id=7817. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- “DNA Research Links Scots, Irish And Welsh To North-western Spain”. George Mason University History News Network. http://hnn.us/roundup/entries/7406.html. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- A Y Chromosne Census of the British Isles (pdf)
- “Yes, the Romans did invade Ireland”. British Archaeology. http://www.britarch.ac.uk/BA/ba14/ba14feat.html.
- *Philip Rance, ‘Attacotti, Déisi and Magnus Maximus: the Case for Irish Federates in Late Roman Britain’, Britannia 32 (2001), pp. 243-270
- Carmel McCaffrey, Leo Eaton “In Search of Ancient Ireland” Ivan R Dee (2002)PBS 2002
- Meaning “pertaining to the tribe of . .”, or roughly equivalent to the later “Mc” or “Mac”
- “Tribes and Tribalism in Early Ireland”, Eiru 22, 1971, p. 153
- ‘The Wild Irish are Barbarous and Most Filthy in their Diet’, bbc.co.uk
- . Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- . Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Kee, Robert. The Green Flag. London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1972. pp. 187-243
- Cecil Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991, p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1
- M.E.Collins, Ireland 1868-1966, (1993) p. 431)
- Paseta, Senia: “Modern Ireland: A Very Short Introduction”, p. 102. Oxford University Press, 2003
- Paseta, Senia: “Modern Ireland: A Very Short Introduction”, pp. 102-104. Oxford University Press, 2003
- Paseta, Senia: “Modern Irealnd: A Very Short Introduction”, pp. 108-110. Oxford University Press, 2003
- Paseta, Senia: “Modern Ireland: A Very Short Introduction”, pp. 110-114. Oxford University Press, 2003
- Paseta, Senia: “Modern Ireland: A Very Short Introduction”, pp. 114-116. Oxford University Press, 2003
- Paseta, Senia :”Morden Irealnd: A Very Short Introduction”, pp. 116-118. Oxford University Press, 2003
- Paseta, Senia :”Morden Irealnd: A Very Short Introduction”, pp. 119-121. Oxford University Press, 2003
- Paseta, Senia: “Modern Ireland: A Very Short Introduction”, pp. 128-141. Oxford University Press, 2003
- http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2012/0218/1224311977327.html Irish Times
- The Irish State www.irlgov.ie
- Irish History, Séamus Mac Annaidh, Bath: Parragon, 1999, ISBN 0-7525-6139-1
- Irish Kings and High Kings, Francis John Byrne, Dublin, 1973, ISBN 0-7134-1304-2
- A New History of Ireland: I – PreHistoric and Early Ireland, ed. Daibhi O Croinin. 2005, ISBN 0-19-821737-4
- A New History of Ireland: II- Medieval Ireland 1169-1534, ed. Art Cosgrove. 1987.
- ISBN 0-06-015317-2
- Plumb, J.H., England in the 18th Century, 1973: “The Irish Empire”
- The Irish Slave Trade a The Forgotten White Slaves.” The Irish Slave Trade â The Forgotten âWhiteâ Slaves â Rasta Livewire. <http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-irish-slave-trade-forgotten-white-slaves/>.
 Further reading
- S. J. Connolly (editor) The Oxford Companion to Irish History (Oxford University Press, 2000)
- Tim Pat Coogan De Valera (Hutchinson, 1993)
- Norman Davies The Isles: A History (Macmillan, 1999)
- Patrick J. Duffy, The Nature of the Medieval Frontier in Ireland, in Studia Hibernica 23 & 23, 1982–83, pp. 21–38; Gaelic Ireland c.1250-c.1650:Land, Lordship & Settlement, 2001
- Nancy Edwards, The archaeology of early medieval Ireland (London, Batsford 1990)
- R. F. Foster Modern Ireland, 1600-1972
- B.J. Graham, Anglo-Norman settlement in County Meath, RIA Proc. 1975; Medieval Irish Settlement, Historical Geography Research Series, No. 3, Norwich, 1980
- J. J. Lee The Modernisation of Irish Society 1848-1918 (Gill and Macmillan)
- J.F. Lydon, The problem of the frontier in medieval Ireland, in Topic 13, 1967; The Lordship of Ireland in the Middle Ages, 1972
- F. S. L. Lyons Ireland Since the Famine
- Dorothy McCardle The Irish Republic
- F. X. Martin “The Course of Irish History” Fourth Edition (Lanham, Maryland: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 2001)
- James H. Murphy Abject Loyalty: Nationalism and Monarchy in Ireland During the Reign of Queen Victoria (Cork University Press, 2001)
- http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/E900003-001/ – the 1921 Treaty debates online
- John A. Murphy Ireland in the Twentieth Century (Gill and Macmillan)
- Kenneth Nicholls, Gaelic and gaelicised Ireland, 1972
- Frank Pakenham, (Lord Longford) Peace by Ordeal
- Alan J. Ward The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Responsible Government & Modern Ireland 1782-1992 (Irish Academic Press, 1994)
- Robert Kee The Green Flag Volumes 1-3 (The Most Distressful Country, The Bold Fenian Men, Ourselves Alone)
- Carmel McCaffrey and Leo Eaton In Search of Ancient Ireland: the origins of the Irish from Neolithic Times to the Coming of the English (Ivan R Dee, 2002)
- Carmel McCaffrey In Search of Ireland’s Heroes: the Story of the Irish from the English Invasion to the Present Day (Ivan R Dee, 2006)
- Paolo Gheda, I cristiani d’Irlanda e la guerra civile (1968-1998), prefazione di Luca Riccardi, Guerini e Associati, Milano 2006, 294 pp., ISBN 88-8335-794-9
- Hugh F. Kearney Ireland: Contested Ideas of Nationalism and History (NYU Press, 2007)
- Nicholas Canny “The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland”(London, 1976) ISBN 0-85527-034-9
- Waddell, John (1998). The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland. Galway: Galway University Press. 10379/1357. Alex vittum
- History of Ireland: Primary Documents
- History of Ireland guide
- Ireland Under Coercion – “The diary of an American“, by Project Gutenberg
- The Story of Ireland by Project Gutenberg)
- Timeline of Irish History 1840-1916 (1916 Rebellion Walking Tour)
- A Concise History of Ireland by P. W. Joyce
- Sources: A National Library of Ireland database for Irish research
- The Ireland of Yesterday – slideshow by Life magazine
- Irish history stories recalled on dvd, free web videos online
- The Irish Story – Irish History website